What is the nature of Filipino resistance to American control after the Spanish-American War that is put down brutally by America?
Prelude to the Modern Industrial Age.
China is the country with the longest continuous history, 7,000
years. The positive and negative effects of its sense of
superiority and desire for isolation. Achieves a much higher
civilization than Europe in the Middle Ages. How stability and
order are promoted by its Buddhist religion and its social class
system and is the most powerful country in the world in the 1500s.
The absolute power of the Emperor. How Europeans use a Chinese
invention to force it to open trade with them in the 1600s. Why
China declines as Europe gains. The nature of the Opium Wars as
England imposes its power.
Japan, though adapting China's religion, calligraphy and art forms,
is also isolated, mainly by its geography. How Japan's large
population, limited natural resources its Samurai Warrior tradition,
and Shintoism, the deification of the Emperor, set it on a course of
A strong resistance to the outside world in the 1600s when Japan
throws out all foreigners. Later there is renewed contact with the
outside world, and enormous changes in the 1800s.
The Late 18th-19th Century
Attraction of China as a vast market for Europe's increased
industrialization. Too large for direct takeover, spheres of
influence are staked out by European powers for economic control and
exploitation. China is humiliated by many European practices on its
soil. Resistance by the Chinese. The defeat of Boxer Rebellion at
the end of the 19th century.
U.S. Admiral Perry's gun ships forcefully opens Japanese trade in
1864, also causing Japan to recognize its need to modernize.
Although resisted by traditionalists, Japan comes to terms with
modernity, with all its implications, negative and positive. Japan
becomes a significant power by the late 1800s. How European
countries anger and frustrate Japan by blocking its fruits of
victory in its wars with China in 1880s and with Russia in 1905.
On a wave of nationalism and expansionism, Japan occupies Korea,
which resists but also sees Japan as a path to modernization.
The Early 20th Century.
European spheres of influence is altering with the U.S. now in the
picture as the American Empire begins with the defeat of Spain in
U.S. sees the Philippine Islands, gained in the Spanish-American
War, as a stepping stone to Asia, and especially China. Philippine
resistance to American control continues for years and is brutally
put down by the U.S.
Resists domination by China. Later Vietnam resists French control
and economic exploitation which is carried out with harsh methods.
After World War I, Wilson calls for self-determination but colonial
empires are excluded. The rise of Vietnamese nationalism with Ho
Chi Minh leading a Vietnamese communist party.
The fall of the last dynasty in 1911 and establishment of a
republic. Sun Yat-sen wants to democratize and modernize, and be
independent of American control. Has cordial relations with
Bolsheviks in Russia. War lords still control large regions of
China. The Communist Party is created in 1921. Russia advises it
to cooperate with the ruling Kuomintang Party, with disastrous
results for the communists. Chang Kai Check suppresses the
Communist Party which survives by fleeing to the interior.
In the 1920s - 1930s, with its growth, modernization, industrialized
militarism, Japan has become expansionist. Its Samurai tradition is
its version of fascism, and allies itself with the Axis. With its
eyes on China to satisfy its material needs, Japan invades Manchuria
in 1931, and launches a brutal all-out war on China in 1937.
The Mid-20th Century
Mao leads the Communist remnants on a one-year, 6,000 mile "Long
March" north to a safe haven. They develop a positive relationship
with the peasants by strictly enforcing a close and respectful
participation in their lives. A cease-fire is arranged between Mao
and Chang to combine against the invaders. Later there are the
issues of who fought the better fight against the Japanese, and the
corruption of Chiang.
The attack on Pearl Harbor and Japan's formidable military force
with its major conquests of World War II in the South Pacific and
the building of its East Asia empire. The resistance of China.
Vietnam (Indo-China) fights a guerilla war and has a friendly
relationship with the U.S. The U.S. island-hopping war. The tide
turns and and U.S. forces approach Japan in 1945.