Protestant society is still dominant.
The Constitution provides for periodic revolution. Especially in
times of economic and social insecurity people tend to turn to the
certitude of emotional religious answers.
new immigration from the 1880s to the 1920s,
answers the demand for cheap labor due to the rapid
industrialization after the Civil War. Originating from
south and east Europe, including Catholics, Jews, and Eastern
Christian Orthodox, they are greeted with great hostility, endure
the city life of poverty.
Responses of Religion
response to poverty.
The social gospel is mostly protest. Moral concern for the poor is
expressed in the idea that the "meek shall inherit the earth."
Slaves, with their animism brought from West Africa, are seen as
not worthy of Christianity. A shift in the 1800s to conversion as a
way to control the slaves by sermon to obey the master. Black
Christianity evolves with Moses as the hero who leads the slaves to
the promised land. The slave-preacher is a natural leader, becomes
active in revolts.
The period after the social reforms of the 19th century. The
religious revivalism of the 1920s. The millennium and the
anticipated 2nd coming of Christ.
led by Brigham Young, settle in Utah, are a despised minority having
a belief in polygamy.
Scopes Monkey Trial
in the 1920s as modernity and technology become threatening to
religions which want a literal interpretation of the bible.
Evolution is accepted by many religious leaders as God's way.
Scopes issue is still with us today.
Many religious Jews immigrate in the new immigration of 1880s to
1920s, holding on to their heritage and religious faith. By the 2nd
or 3rd generations this faith is modified into orthodox,
conservative and reform denominations.
Irish immigration to America starts before the Civil War and
continues into the 20th century to escape poverty and seek
opportunity. New immigration is from Italy. Catholicism becomes a
potent force in the U.S.
Religions in current American society
Divisions of Orthodox, Conservative and Reformed. Issues of
maintaining membership, intermarriage, attempts of convert Jews to
Christianity. Ultra-Orthodox within the Orthodox. Time of
transition or time of crisis?
in the U.S.
Growing significantly. Cloud of prejudice hovering over Muslims
since 9/11. The Black Muslims Nation of Islam during the Jim Crow
Era in the early 1900s argued for separation of the races, emphasis
on purity of the body, and the rise of the charismatic Malcolm X
becomes its spokesman until he disavows it because of corruption,
and is assassinated. .
Influence of Pope John the XXIII and Vatican II Conference
calling for reforms in the Catholic Church, including the issue of
birth control, the celibacy of priests, support of at times radical
liberation theology based on the bible, .
A degree of social reform movement in old line denominations.