What is the
nature of Filipino resistance to American
The Mid-20th Century.
(continued) The controversy of America's reason for using the
atomic bomb it against the Japanese population. The issue of the
role of the Emperor's fate in this.
Post-World War II Effects on East Asia
The "Communist" insurrection takes years to put down.
American occupation, and the Westernization of its institutions.
The Emperor remains but with limited power. Japan allies with the
U.S. in the Cold War and rebuilds itself. The contrast between U.S.
which continues as a capital-intensive war-time economy and Japan's
peacetime labor-intensive economy because its defense is secured by
the U.S. Japan becomes a significant world economic power. Its
need to import and export and its need for materials remains an
ongoing problem, creating pressure to build up its military might.
Experiences pressure to modernize. At the end of World War II,
Korea is divided at the 38th parallel. Russia occupies the North.
The U.S. occupies the South and installs Syngman Rhee, a wartime
collaborator, as leader. There are many incursions from both sides
across border between 1945 and 1950, but in 1950 North Korea
succeeds in taking most of South Korea. The U.S. intervenes with
McArthur's Inchon landing, and pushes the North Korean forces back
to the 38th parallel. Instead of ending the war the U.S. wants to
unite the country and. pushes north. Why the Chinese warnings that
they will intervene as U.S. troops advance toward its border are
ignored. The Chinese do intervene creating a major war with high
U.S. casualties, and ends in 1953 with an armistice. The evidence
that this is a civil war and that Russia is not behind it. The
contrast between South Korea's current relative prosperity,
increasingly dictatorial and corrupt, and North Korea's very harsh
society with many economic woes and whose leader is deified.
Tensions remain, with the hope that increasing contacts and
communications will have a positive effect.
Ho Chi Minh declares Vietnam an independent republic, calling itself
communist although it is basically nationalist. France wants to
restore its empire. It becomes America's proxy in resisting any
"communist" factions in that region. U.S. supports France
militarily in its brutal war until 1954 when France is defeated.
The U.S. refuses to lose this area to the Communists and creates the
fiction of a North and South Vietnam around the 17th parallel. We
provide military supplies but President Eisenhower refuses to send
troops. President Kennedy sends troops as "advisors" in 1961.
American opinion turns against the war as President Johnson and then
President Nixon insist on a favorable outcome. After a devastating
and expanded war the South Korean army quickly collapses in 1975
after the U. S. withdraws its forces. Restoring and rebuilding the
country will take generations. The lessons learned and forgotten by
The country, America's gateway to China, fights to be free from U.S.
control after Spain's control is ended by the Spanish-American
War. In World War II, the U.S. reclaims it from the Japanese. The
U.S. promises the Philippines independence but a Communist
insurgency fights against American control. When it gains
independence its leaders become corrupt and ruthlessly dictatorial.
This is acceptable to the U.S. so long as the country remains
anti-Communist during the Cold War. Recent leadership changes show
some opening to democratic processes, but some not. Insurgencies
continue under Communist, Maoist, and Muslim labels.
This East Indies part of the Dutch Colonial Empire gets its
independence after World War II. It goes in the direction of a
military dictatorship. The resistance of one island under its
control is put down by brutal massacres. The U.S. ignores this to
maintain its Cold War alliance. Indonesia is heavily populated, has
important resources, and is unstable in many ways.
After World War II the civil war resumes until the Communist
victory in 1949. Chiang's corrupt and dictatorial government flees
to Taiwan. The U.S. recognizes Taiwan as China for the next 25
years, incredibly ignoring the most populated country in the world.
At that point China is backward and devastated by civil war and the
Japanese invasion. The Korean War comes 1 year after taking power.
The Communists are a harsh dictatorial government. Early successes
in literacy, health, medicine, and food production. Lack of
technology and machinery, and so, emphasis on sheer manpower. Clash
between maintaining revolutionary fervor and economic development.
Deification of Mao and his disruption of economic progress. The
forced movement of rural labor to city factories and its impact on
personal lives. Mao makes peace with the U.S. in 1973, opening
China diplomatically and economically to Western capitalism. After
Mao dies in 1976, the forces for economic development win out. The
revolutionary fervor is all but gone. China remains Communist in
lexicon only, rapidly developing into a capitalist country. The
peasants, an element of cheap labor exploited in the cities and
valuable to the West, do not share in modernity. There is a growing
inequality in a dictatorial society. An expression of revolutionary
ideals by the young in Tiananmen Square is put down with extreme
ferocity as the government feels threatened. China is rapidly
developing as a world power. Revolutionary ideals all but gone.
Growing inequality and exploitation. Terrible environmental
consequences in its rapid growth. The nature of China's future
society and its relation to the outside world remain in doubt.